Mars Konzern Marken (Auswahl)
Pedigree, Whiskas, Sheba, Kitekat, Frolic, Cesar, Chappi, Perfect Fit, Catsan, Trill etc. Mars, Snickers, Twix, Balisto, Milky Way, Bounty, M&Ms, Maltesers, Celebrations, Amicelli, Mars Icecream etc. Uncle Ben's, Ebly, Mirácoli. Mars Inc. ist ein US-amerikanischer Nahrungsmittelkonzern mit Sitz in McLean (Virginia), der Schokoriegel, Lebensmittel, Getränke, Tierfutter und. Seit über Jahren produziert Mars mit Stolz Süßigkeiten, nahrhafte Mahlzeiten und viele Ihrer Lieblingsprodukte. Erfahren Sie, warum wir bereit sind, ein Teil.
Mars Inc. ist ein US-amerikanischer Nahrungsmittelkonzern mit Sitz in McLean (Virginia), der Schokoriegel, Lebensmittel, Getränke, Tierfutter und. Mars Petcare. Heute haben wir mehr als Mitarbeiter, die sich in unseren Geschäftsbereichen Ernährung, Gesundheit und Dienstleistungen mit Stolz um die. Der Konzern wurde von Frank C. Mars gegründet, der zunächst eine „Candy Factory“ aufbaute und mit Schokolade und Bonbons experimentierte. Zwölf.
Mars Konzern InhaltsverzeichnisSie hatte versprochen, der Konzern wolle sich öffnen und transparenter werden. D ie Leute in der Gegend nennen das Gebäude scherzhaft den Kreml. Viele der Managementprinzipien gehen auf den Gründer des Konzerns zurück. In den vergangenen zwei Jahren war sie mehrmals auf Branchenkonferenzen aufgetreten. Wettfreunde Bundesliga Familien arbeiten in der dritten Generation für Mars. Nichts deutet darauf Besten PartnerbГ¶rsen, dass sich darin der Konzernsitz von Mars verbirgt.
Dazu gehört auch die Bitte nach Hilfe, wenn diese benötigt wird. Unsere Arbeitskultur ist geprägt von Diversität. Deshalb sind wir offen für Menschen, die neue Ideen in unser Unternehmen einbringen können.
Wir wollen Ihnen den Raum geben, sich selbst auszuprobieren, damit Sie Mars in Zukunft führen können!
Ihnen stehen viele unterschiedliche Karrierewege als Führungskraft in unseren verschiedenen Marken, Disziplinen und Regionen offen.
Unsere Trainee- und Ausbildungsprogramme helfen Ihnen, durch vielfältige Erfahrungen und kontinuierliches Lernen auf eine bessere Zukunft hinzuarbeiten.
Eine Entscheidung über die Zukunft der Fabrik werde nach Einbindung aller Betroffenen und dem Abschluss des Konsultationsprozesses mit dem Betriebsrat in den nächsten Wochen gefällt.
During the next 20 years, from to , the dynamic continued, with a strong increase in new co-operatives promoted by Caja Laboral's Business Division, the promotion of co-operative associations, the formation of local groups, and the founding of the in Jeffrey Epstein association Wexner had a close relationship with the late , that began in the s and continued until at least Wexner purchased the New York property, the , in and later transferred it to Epstein in the mids following his marriage.
For most workers, this ratio is smaller because there are few Mondragon worker-owners that earn minimum wages, because most jobs are somewhat specialized and are classified at higher wage levels.
The Group consisted of 23, workers at the end of The Mondragon Corporation already appeared in Robinson's earlier trilogy, as one of the Terran groups involved in the colonization and of ; the coop is also portrayed as the inspiration of both the bogdanovist movement and the libertarian-leaning Praxis Corporation two of the main forces leading the revolution for the independence of Mars.
Wexner expanded the Limited considerably in the s, having opened the th store in Davon betroffen wären rund Beschäftigte.
We are testing many different vehicle designs and delivery mechanisms to discover how best to deliver packages in a variety of operating environments.
Das Unternehmen erklärte, es setze die Technologie nicht ein. By sales were in decline and proved to be the final year for the Victoria's Secret fashion show.
By , 74, people were employed. Der Jahres beträgt etwa 35 Milliarden Stand Compared to similar jobs at local industries, Mondragon managers' wages are considerably lower as some companies pay their best paid managers hundreds of times more than the lowest-paid employee of the company and equivalent for middle management, technical and professional levels.
Sidereal rotation period. Axial tilt. Apparent magnitude. Angular diameter. Surface pressure. Play media. Animation showing major features of Mars.
Main article: Geology of Mars. Main article: Martian soil. Main article: Water on Mars. Main article: Martian polar ice caps.
North polar early summer water ice cap ; a seasonal layer of carbon dioxide ice forms in winter and disappears in summer.
South polar midsummer ice cap ; the south cap has a permanent carbon dioxide ice cap mixed with water ice. Main article: Geography of Mars.
Further information: Areoid. See also: Category:Surface features of Mars. Main article: List of quadrangles on Mars.
Mare Boreum. Mare Acidalium. Ismenius Lacus. Lunae Palus. Oxia Palus. Syrtis Major. Mare Australe. Main article: Volcanology of Mars. Main article: Atmosphere of Mars.
Main article: Methane on Mars. Main article: Climate of Mars. Dust storms on Mars. June 6, . Locations of the Opportunity and Curiosity rovers are noted.
Main article: Orbit of Mars. Main articles: Moons of Mars , Phobos moon , and Deimos moon. Orbits of Phobos and Deimos to scale.
Main article: Exploration of Mars. Main article: Astronomy on Mars. See also: Solar eclipses on Mars. Phobos transits the Sun Opportunity , March 10, Main article: History of Mars observation.
Map of Mars from the Hubble Space Telescope as seen near the opposition north on top. Main article: Martian canal. Main articles: Mars in culture and Mars in fiction.
Solar System portal. The view is centered on the Aeolis quadrangle , with Gale crater , the landing site of the Curiosity rover , prominently visible just left of center.
The darker, more heavily cratered terrain in the south, Terra Cimmeria , is composed of older terrain than the much smoother and brighter Elysium Planitia to the north.
Geologically recent processes, such as the possible existence of a global ocean in Mars's past, could have helped lower-elevated areas, such as Elysium Planitia, retain a more youthful look.
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Mars Konzern - Wie der Mars-Kreml die Welt der Schokoriegel steuertAuf der Rückreise kam es im April zur berühmten Meuterei auf der Bounty. Mars verlegte die Tierfutter-Produktion nach Slough, wo sich auch seine Schokoladenfabrik befand. Der Eingang ist verschlossen, an der Tür ist ein schlichtes Schild angebracht: Privatbesitz. Hier kommt die Nerven-Nahrung aus dem 3-D-Drucker. Mars Petcare. Heute haben wir mehr als Mitarbeiter, die sich in unseren Geschäftsbereichen Ernährung, Gesundheit und Dienstleistungen mit Stolz um die. Mitarbeiter in 78 Ländern sorgen dafür, dass der Familienkonzern Mars Incorporated einen Jahresumsatz von 35 Milliarden. Victoria Mars bei einem ihrer seltenen öffentlichen Auftritte. Hier nimmt die Aufsichtsratschefin des Mars-Konzerns an einem Forum für. Der Konzern wurde von Frank C. Mars gegründet, der zunächst eine „Candy Factory“ aufbaute und mit Schokolade und Bonbons experimentierte. Zwölf. wurde Mars Incorporated gegründet. Mittlerweile hat der Konzern seinen Hauptfirmensitz in Tysons Corner in Virgina. Das Unternehmen befindet sich bis.
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Gleichzeitig müssen unsere Mitarbeier flexibel an neue Herausforderungen herangehen und ihre eigene Entwicklung proaktiv steuern. Dazu gehört auch die Bitte nach Hilfe, wenn diese benötigt wird.
Unsere Arbeitskultur ist geprägt von Diversität. Deshalb sind wir offen für Menschen, die neue Ideen in unser Unternehmen einbringen können. Wir wollen Ihnen den Raum geben, sich selbst auszuprobieren, damit Sie Mars in Zukunft führen können!
Ihnen stehen viele unterschiedliche Karrierewege als Führungskraft in unseren verschiedenen Marken, Disziplinen und Regionen offen. The streaks are dark at first and get lighter with age.
The streaks can start in a tiny area, then spread out for hundreds of metres. They have been seen to follow the edges of boulders and other obstacles in their path.
The commonly accepted theories include that they are dark underlying layers of soil revealed after avalanches of bright dust or dust devils.
Landforms visible on Mars strongly suggest that liquid water has existed on the planet's surface. Huge linear swathes of scoured ground, known as outflow channels , cut across the surface in about 25 places.
These are thought to be a record of erosion caused by the catastrophic release of water from subsurface aquifers, though some of these structures have been hypothesized to result from the action of glaciers or lava.
It is thought to have been carved by flowing water early in Mars's history. Features of these valleys and their distribution strongly imply that they were carved by runoff resulting from precipitation in early Mars history.
Subsurface water flow and groundwater sapping may play important subsidiary roles in some networks, but precipitation was probably the root cause of the incision in almost all cases.
Along crater and canyon walls, there are thousands of features that appear similar to terrestrial gullies. A number of authors have suggested that their formation process involves liquid water, probably from melting ice,   although others have argued for formation mechanisms involving carbon dioxide frost or the movement of dry dust.
Further evidence that liquid water once existed on the surface of Mars comes from the detection of specific minerals such as hematite and goethite , both of which sometimes form in the presence of water.
This forms only in the presence of acidic water, which demonstrates that water once existed on Mars. In , radar data revealed the presence of large quantities of water ice at the poles  and at mid-latitudes.
The Phoenix lander directly sampled water ice in shallow Martian soil on 31 July On 18 March , NASA reported evidence from instruments on the Curiosity rover of mineral hydration , likely hydrated calcium sulfate , in several rock samples including the broken fragments of "Tintina" rock and "Sutton Inlier" rock as well as in veins and nodules in other rocks like "Knorr" rock and "Wernicke" rock.
Researchers suspect that much of the low northern plains of the planet were covered with an ocean hundreds of meters deep, though this remains controversial.
This finding was derived from the ratio of water to deuterium in the modern Martian atmosphere compared to that ratio on Earth.
The amount of Martian deuterium is eight times the amount that exists on Earth, suggesting that ancient Mars had significantly higher levels of water.
Results from the Curiosity rover had previously found a high ratio of deuterium in Gale Crater , though not significantly high enough to suggest the former presence of an ocean.
Other scientists caution that these results have not been confirmed, and point out that Martian climate models have not yet shown that the planet was warm enough in the past to support bodies of liquid water.
Near the northern polar cap is the In February , it was found that dark streaks called recurring slope lineae RSL , which appear seasonably, are caused by briny water flowing for a few days annually.
Mars has two permanent polar ice caps. These seasonal actions transport large amounts of dust and water vapor, giving rise to Earth-like frost and large cirrus clouds.
Clouds of water-ice were photographed by the Opportunity rover in Frozen carbon dioxide accumulates as a comparatively thin layer about one metre thick on the north cap in the northern winter only, whereas the south cap has a permanent dry ice cover about eight metres thick.
This permanent dry ice cover at the south pole is peppered by flat floored, shallow, roughly circular pits , which repeat imaging shows are expanding by meters per year; this suggests that the permanent CO 2 cover over the south pole water ice is degrading over time.
The seasonal frosting of areas near the southern ice cap results in the formation of transparent 1-metre-thick slabs of dry ice above the ground.
With the arrival of spring, sunlight warms the subsurface and pressure from subliming CO 2 builds up under a slab, elevating and ultimately rupturing it.
This leads to geyser-like eruptions of CO 2 gas mixed with dark basaltic sand or dust. This process is rapid, observed happening in the space of a few days, weeks or months, a rate of change rather unusual in geology — especially for Mars.
The gas rushing underneath a slab to the site of a geyser carves a spiderweb-like pattern of radial channels under the ice, the process being the inverted equivalent of an erosion network formed by water draining through a single plughole.
They began by establishing that most of Mars's surface features were permanent and by more precisely determining the planet's rotation period.
In , Mädler combined ten years of observations and drew the first map of Mars. Rather than giving names to the various markings, Beer and Mädler simply designated them with letters; Meridian Bay Sinus Meridiani was thus feature " a ".
Today, features on Mars are named from a variety of sources. Albedo features are named for classical mythology. Craters larger than 60 km are named for deceased scientists and writers and others who have contributed to the study of Mars.
Craters smaller than 60 km are named for towns and villages of the world with populations of less than , Large valleys are named for the word "Mars" or "star" in various languages; small valleys are named for rivers.
Large albedo features retain many of the older names, but are often updated to reflect new knowledge of the nature of the features. The paler plains covered with dust and sand rich in reddish iron oxides were once thought of as Martian "continents" and given names like Arabia Terra land of Arabia or Amazonis Planitia Amazonian plain.
The largest dark feature seen from Earth is Syrtis Major Planum. Mars's equator is defined by its rotation, but the location of its Prime Meridian was specified, as was Earth's at Greenwich , by choice of an arbitrary point; Mädler and Beer selected a line for their first maps of Mars in After the spacecraft Mariner 9 provided extensive imagery of Mars in , a small crater later called Airy-0 , located in the Sinus Meridiani "Middle Bay" or "Meridian Bay" , was chosen by Merton Davies of the Rand Corporation  for the definition of 0.
Because Mars has no oceans and hence no " sea level ", a zero-elevation surface had to be selected as a reference level; this is called the areoid  of Mars, analogous to the terrestrial geoid.
For mapping purposes, the United States Geological Survey divides the surface of Mars into thirty cartographic quadrangles , each named for a classical albedo feature it contains.
The quadrangles can be seen and explored via the interactive image map below. The dichotomy of Martian topography is striking: northern plains flattened by lava flows contrast with the southern highlands, pitted and cratered by ancient impacts.
Research in has presented evidence regarding a theory proposed in postulating that, four billion years ago, the northern hemisphere of Mars was struck by an object one-tenth to two-thirds the size of Earth's Moon.
Mars is scarred by a number of impact craters: a total of 43, craters with a diameter of 5 kilometres 3. Mars is located closer to the asteroid belt , so it has an increased chance of being struck by materials from that source.
Mars is more likely to be struck by short-period comets , i. Martian craters can have a morphology that suggests the ground became wet after the meteor impacted.
The shield volcano Olympus Mons Mount Olympus is an extinct volcano in the vast upland region Tharsis , which contains several other large volcanoes.
Olympus Mons is roughly three times the height of Mount Everest , which in comparison stands at just over 8.
The length of Valles Marineris is equivalent to the length of Europe and extends across one-fifth the circumference of Mars.
Valles Marineris was formed due to the swelling of the Tharsis area, which caused the crust in the area of Valles Marineris to collapse.
Because light does not reach the floor of most of the caves, it is possible that they extend much deeper than these lower estimates and widen below the surface.
The interiors of these caverns may be protected from micrometeoroids, UV radiation, solar flares and high energy particles that bombard the planet's surface.
Mars lost its magnetosphere 4 billion years ago,  possibly because of numerous asteroid strikes,  so the solar wind interacts directly with the Martian ionosphere , lowering the atmospheric density by stripping away atoms from the outer layer.
Compared to Earth, the atmosphere of Mars is quite rarefied. The resulting mean surface pressure is only 0.
The scale height of the atmosphere is about Methane has been detected in the Martian atmosphere ;   it occurs in extended plumes, and the profiles imply that the methane is released from discrete regions.
The concentration of methane fluctuates from about 0. Estimates of its lifetime range from 0. Methane could be produced by non-biological process such as serpentinization involving water, carbon dioxide, and the mineral olivine , which is known to be common on Mars.
But even if rover missions determine that microscopic Martian life is the source of the methane, the life forms likely reside far below the surface, outside of the rover's reach.
In , the European Space Agency's Mars Express found an ultraviolet glow coming from "magnetic umbrellas" in the southern hemisphere. Mars does not have a global magnetic field which guides charged particles entering the atmosphere.
Mars has multiple umbrella-shaped magnetic fields mainly in the southern hemisphere, which are remnants of a global field that decayed billions of years ago.
The particles causing the aurora penetrated into the Martian atmosphere, creating auroras below km above the surface, Earth's auroras range from km to km above the surface.
Magnetic fields in the solar wind drape over Mars, into the atmosphere, and the charged particles follow the solar wind magnetic field lines into the atmosphere, causing auroras to occur outside the magnetic umbrellas.
On 18 March , NASA reported the detection of an aurora that is not fully understood and an unexplained dust cloud in the atmosphere of Mars.
In September , NASA reported radiation levels on the surface of the planet Mars were temporarily doubled , and were associated with an aurora 25 times brighter than any observed earlier, due to a massive, and unexpected, solar storm in the middle of the month.
Of all the planets in the Solar System, the seasons of Mars are the most Earth-like, due to the similar tilts of the two planets' rotational axes.
The lengths of the Martian seasons are about twice those of Earth's because Mars's greater distance from the Sun leads to the Martian year being about two Earth years long.
If Mars had an Earth-like orbit, its seasons would be similar to Earth's because its axial tilt is similar to Earth's.
The comparatively large eccentricity of the Martian orbit has a significant effect. Mars is near perihelion when it is summer in the southern hemisphere and winter in the north, and near aphelion when it is winter in the southern hemisphere and summer in the north.
As a result, the seasons in the southern hemisphere are more extreme and the seasons in the northern are milder than would otherwise be the case.
These can vary from a storm over a small area, to gigantic storms that cover the entire planet. They tend to occur when Mars is closest to the Sun, and have been shown to increase the global temperature.
The solar day or sol on Mars is only slightly longer than an Earth day: 24 hours, 39 minutes, and The axial tilt of Mars is In the present day epoch, the orientation of the north pole of Mars is close to the star Deneb.
Mars has a relatively pronounced orbital eccentricity of about 0. It is known that in the past, Mars has had a much more circular orbit.
At one point, 1. For the last 35, years, the orbit of Mars has been getting slightly more eccentric because of the gravitational effects of the other planets.
The closest distance between Earth and Mars will continue to mildly decrease for the next 25, years. The current understanding of planetary habitability — the ability of a world to develop environmental conditions favorable to the emergence of life — favors planets that have liquid water on their surface.
Most often this requires the orbit of a planet to lie within the habitable zone , which for the Sun extends from just beyond Venus to about the semi-major axis of Mars.
The past flow of liquid water demonstrates the planet's potential for habitability. Recent evidence has suggested that any water on the Martian surface may have been too salty and acidic to support regular terrestrial life.
The lack of a magnetosphere and the extremely thin atmosphere of Mars are a challenge: the planet has little heat transfer across its surface, poor insulation against bombardment of the solar wind and insufficient atmospheric pressure to retain water in a liquid form water instead sublimes to a gaseous state.
Mars is nearly, or perhaps totally, geologically dead; the end of volcanic activity has apparently stopped the recycling of chemicals and minerals between the surface and interior of the planet.
In situ investigations have been performed on Mars by the Viking landers , Spirit and Opportunity rovers, Phoenix lander, and Curiosity rover.
Evidence suggests that the planet was once significantly more habitable than it is today, but whether living organisms ever existed there remains unknown.
The Viking probes of the mids carried experiments designed to detect microorganisms in Martian soil at their respective landing sites and had positive results, including a temporary increase of CO 2 production on exposure to water and nutrients.
This sign of life was later disputed by scientists, resulting in a continuing debate, with NASA scientist Gilbert Levin asserting that Viking may have found life.
A re-analysis of the Viking data, in light of modern knowledge of extremophile forms of life, has suggested that the Viking tests were not sophisticated enough to detect these forms of life.
The tests could even have killed a hypothetical life form. A analysis of the Phoenix WCL showed that the Ca ClO 4 2 in the Phoenix soil has not interacted with liquid water of any form, perhaps for as long as million years.
This suggests a severely arid environment, with minimal or no liquid water interaction. Scientists have proposed that carbonate globules found in meteorite ALH , which is thought to have originated from Mars, could be fossilized microbes extant on Mars when the meteorite was blasted from the Martian surface by a meteor strike some 15 million years ago.
This proposal has been met with skepticism, and an exclusively inorganic origin for the shapes has been proposed. Small quantities of methane and formaldehyde detected by Mars orbiters are both claimed to be possible evidence for life, as these chemical compounds would quickly break down in the Martian atmosphere.
Impact glass , formed by the impact of meteors, which on Earth can preserve signs of life, has been found on the surface of the impact craters on Mars.
In May , evidence of the earliest known life on land on Earth may have been found in 3. These findings may be helpful in deciding where best to search for early signs of life on the planet Mars.
In early , media reports speculated that certain rock features at a site called Jura looked like a type of fossil, but project scientists say the formations likely resulted from a geological process at the bottom of an ancient drying lakebed, and are related to mineral veins in the area similar to gypsum crystals.
On 7 June , NASA announced that the Curiosity rover had discovered organic compounds in sedimentary rocks dating to three billion years old,  indicating that some of the building blocks for life were present.
In July , scientists reported the discovery of a subglacial lake on Mars, the first known stable body of water on the planet.
It sits 1. It is mostly surrounded by higher ground except on its eastern side, where there is a depression.
Asteroid capture is a long-favored theory, but their origin remains uncertain. Mars was the Roman counterpart of Ares. From the surface of Mars, the motions of Phobos and Deimos appear different from that of the Moon.
Phobos rises in the west, sets in the east, and rises again in just 11 hours. Deimos, being only just outside synchronous orbit — where the orbital period would match the planet's period of rotation — rises as expected in the east but slowly.
Despite the hour orbit of Deimos, 2. Because the orbit of Phobos is below synchronous altitude, the tidal forces from the planet Mars are gradually lowering its orbit.
In about 50 million years, it could either crash into Mars's surface or break up into a ring structure around the planet. The origin of the two moons is not well understood.
Their low albedo and carbonaceous chondrite composition have been regarded as similar to asteroids, supporting the capture theory.
The unstable orbit of Phobos would seem to point towards a relatively recent capture. But both have circular orbits , near the equator, which is unusual for captured objects and the required capture dynamics are complex.
Accretion early in the history of Mars is plausible, but would not account for a composition resembling asteroids rather than Mars itself, if that is confirmed.
A third possibility is the involvement of a third body or a type of impact disruption. Although the VNIR spectra of the moons of Mars resemble those of outer-belt asteroids, the thermal infrared spectra of Phobos are reported to be inconsistent with chondrites of any class.
Dozens of crewless spacecraft , including orbiters , landers , and rovers , have been sent to Mars by the Soviet Union , the United States , Europe , and India to study the planet's surface, climate, and geology.
The Mars Orbiter Mission used a Hohmann transfer orbit to escape Earth's gravitational influence and catapult into a nine-month-long voyage to Mars.
The mission is the first successful Asian interplanetary mission. The mission arrived at Mars in November The probe will make a global study of the Martian atmosphere.
Several plans for a human mission to Mars have been proposed throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, but no human mission has yet launched.
With the presence of various orbiters, landers, and rovers, it is possible to practice astronomy from Mars.
Although Mars's moon Phobos appears about one-third the angular diameter of the full moon on Earth, Deimos appears more or less star-like, looking only slightly brighter than Venus does from Earth.
Various phenomena seen from Earth have also been observed from Mars, such as meteors and auroras. A transit of Earth will be seen from Mars on 10 November On 19 October , comet Siding Spring passed extremely close to Mars, so close that the coma may have enveloped Mars.
NASA 's Spirit rover has taken pictures of a greenish-brown, mud-colored landscape with blue-grey rocks and patches of light red sand.
When least favorably positioned, it can be lost in the Sun's glare for months at a time. At its most favorable times — at year or year intervals, and always between late July and late September — a lot of surface detail can be seen with a telescope.
Especially noticeable, even at low magnification, are the polar ice caps. As Mars approaches opposition, it begins a period of retrograde motion , which means it will appear to move backwards in a looping motion with respect to the background stars.
The duration of this retrograde motion lasts for about 72 days, and Mars reaches its peak luminosity in the middle of this motion.
The time of opposition can occur as much as 8. As Mars approaches opposition it begins a period of retrograde motion , which makes it appear to move backwards in a looping motion relative to the background stars.
The duration of this retrograde motion is about 72 days. This occurred when Mars was one day from opposition and about three days from its perihelion , making it particularly easy to see from Earth.
The last time it came so close is estimated to have been on 12 September 57, BC , the next time being in For instance, the minimum distance on 22 August , was 0.
Every 15 to 17 years, Mars comes into opposition near its perihelion. These perihelic oppositions make a closer approach to earth than other oppositions which occur every 2.
Mars comes into perihelic opposition in , and , with and being close to perihelic opposition. The history of observations of Mars is marked by the oppositions of Mars, when the planet is closest to Earth and hence is most easily visible, which occur every couple of years.
Even more notable are the perihelic oppositions of Mars, which occur every 15 or 17 years and are distinguished because Mars is close to perihelion, making it even closer to Earth.
The ancient Sumerians believed that Mars was Nergal , the god of war and plague. For Mars, they knew that the planet made 37 synodic periods , or 42 circuits of the zodiac, every 79 years.
They invented arithmetic methods for making minor corrections to the predicted positions of the planets.
In the fourth century BCE, Aristotle noted that Mars disappeared behind the Moon during an occultation , indicating that the planet was farther away.
Ptolemy's model and his collective work on astronomy was presented in the multi-volume collection Almagest , which became the authoritative treatise on Western astronomy for the next fourteen centuries.
During the seventeenth century, Tycho Brahe measured the diurnal parallax of Mars that Johannes Kepler used to make a preliminary calculation of the relative distance to the planet.
This was first performed by Giovanni Domenico Cassini in The early parallax measurements were hampered by the quality of the instruments.
By the 19th century, the resolution of telescopes reached a level sufficient for surface features to be identified. A perihelic opposition of Mars occurred on September 5, In that year, the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli used a 22 centimetres 8.
These maps notably contained features he called canali , which were later shown to be an optical illusion. These canali were supposedly long, straight lines on the surface of Mars, to which he gave names of famous rivers on Earth.
His term, which means "channels" or "grooves", was popularly mistranslated in English as "canals". The observatory was used for the exploration of Mars during the last good opportunity in and the following less favorable oppositions.
He published several books on Mars and life on the planet, which had a great influence on the public. The seasonal changes consisting of the diminishing of the polar caps and the dark areas formed during Martian summer in combination with the canals led to speculation about life on Mars, and it was a long-held belief that Mars contained vast seas and vegetation.
The telescope never reached the resolution required to give proof to any speculations. As bigger telescopes were used, fewer long, straight canali were observed.
Even in the s, articles were published on Martian biology, putting aside explanations other than life for the seasonal changes on Mars.
Detailed scenarios for the metabolism and chemical cycles for a functional ecosystem have been published.
Once spacecraft visited the planet during NASA's Mariner missions in the s and s, these concepts were radically broken.
The results of the Viking life-detection experiments aided an intermission in which the hypothesis of a hostile, dead planet was generally accepted.
Mariner 9 and Viking allowed better maps of Mars to be made using the data from these missions, and another major leap forward was the Mars Global Surveyor mission, launched in and operated until late , that allowed complete, extremely detailed maps of the Martian topography, magnetic field and surface minerals to be obtained.
Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Express continued exploring with new instruments, and supporting lander missions. NASA provides two online tools: Mars Trek , which provides visualizations of the planet using data from 50 years of exploration, and Experience Curiosity , which simulates traveling on Mars in 3-D with Curiosity.
Mars is named after the Roman god of war. In different cultures, Mars represents masculinity and youth.
Its symbol , a circle with an arrow pointing out to the upper right, is used as a symbol for the male gender. The many failures in Mars exploration probes resulted in a satirical counter-culture blaming the failures on an Earth-Mars " Bermuda Triangle ", a " Mars Curse ", or a "Great Galactic Ghoul" that feeds on Martian spacecraft.
The fashionable idea that Mars was populated by intelligent Martians exploded in the late 19th century. Schiaparelli's "canali" observations combined with Percival Lowell 's books on the subject put forward the standard notion of a planet that was a drying, cooling, dying world with ancient civilizations constructing irrigation works.
Many other observations and proclamations by notable personalities added to what has been termed "Mars Fever".
In a interview, Tesla said:. It was some time afterward when the thought flashed upon my mind that the disturbances I had observed might be due to an intelligent control.
Although I could not decipher their meaning, it was impossible for me to think of them as having been entirely accidental. The feeling is constantly growing on me that I had been the first to hear the greeting of one planet to another.
Tesla's theories gained support from Lord Kelvin who, while visiting the United States in , was reported to have said that he thought Tesla had picked up Martian signals being sent to the United States.
In a New York Times article in , Edward Charles Pickering , director of the Harvard College Observatory , said that they had received a telegram from Lowell Observatory in Arizona that seemed to confirm that Mars was trying to communicate with Earth.
Early in December , we received from Lowell Observatory in Arizona a telegram that a shaft of light had been seen to project from Mars the Lowell observatory makes a specialty of Mars lasting seventy minutes.
I wired these facts to Europe and sent out neostyle copies through this country. The observer there is a careful, reliable man and there is no reason to doubt that the light existed.
It was given as from a well-known geographical point on Mars. That was all. Now the story has gone the world over.
In Europe, it is stated that I have been in communication with Mars, and all sorts of exaggerations have spring up. Whatever the light was, we have no means of knowing.
Whether it had intelligence or not, no one can say. It is absolutely inexplicable. Pickering later proposed creating a set of mirrors in Texas , intended to signal Martians.
In recent decades, the high-resolution mapping of the surface of Mars, culminating in Mars Global Surveyor , revealed no artifacts of habitation by "intelligent" life, but pseudoscientific speculation about intelligent life on Mars continues from commentators such as Richard C.
Reminiscent of the canali controversy, these speculations are based on small scale features perceived in the spacecraft images, such as "pyramids" and the " Face on Mars ".
Planetary astronomer Carl Sagan wrote:. Mars has become a kind of mythic arena onto which we have projected our Earthly hopes and fears.
The depiction of Mars in fiction has been stimulated by its dramatic red color and by nineteenth century scientific speculations that its surface conditions might support not just life but intelligent life.
Wells ' The War of the Worlds , published in , in which Martians seek to escape their dying planet by invading Earth. Heinlein stories before the mid-sixties.
Jonathan Swift made reference to the moons of Mars, about years before their actual discovery by Asaph Hall , detailing reasonably accurate descriptions of their orbits, in the 19th chapter of his novel Gulliver's Travels.
A comic figure of an intelligent Martian, Marvin the Martian , appeared in Haredevil Hare as a character in the Looney Tunes animated cartoons of Warner Brothers , and has continued as part of popular culture to the present.
After the Mariner and Viking spacecraft had returned pictures of Mars as it really is, an apparently lifeless and canal-less world, these ideas about Mars had to be abandoned, and a vogue for accurate, realist depictions of human colonies on Mars developed, the best known of which may be Kim Stanley Robinson 's Mars trilogy.
Pseudo-scientific speculations about the Face on Mars and other enigmatic landmarks spotted by space probes have meant that ancient civilizations continue to be a popular theme in science fiction, especially in film.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the planet. For the deity, see Mars mythology. For other uses, see Mars disambiguation.
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